Algal blooms in Ontario, Canada: Increases in reports since 1994
Abstract The Ontario Ministry of the Environment provides an algal identification service as part of the Ministry's response to algal bloom events, and we have been tracking the reports since 1994. From 1994 through 2009, we noted a significant increase in the number of algal blooms reported each year (P < 0.001). There was also an increase in the number of blooms in which cyanobacteria were dominant (P < 0.001), with these samples making up 50% of the total during peak years. The most common taxa of cyanobacteria identified were Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Gloeotrichia, and various Oscillatoriales. The remaining samples were dominated by filamentous green algae, or occasionally by chrysophytes. We also noted geographic and seasonal trends in the bloom reports. Most of the increase in the number of cyanobacterial bloom reports was accounted for from lakes on the Canadian Shield (located within the boundary of the Ministry's Northern Region). Algal blooms are now being reported later into the fall than they were during the 1990s; bloom reports have extended well into November in recent years. We attributed these trends to (1) increased nutrient inputs in some areas, which promote the growth of algae; (2) factors associated with climate warming, which may exacerbate bloom conditions; and (3) an increase in public awareness of algal issues. An increase in algal bloom reports is a management issue in Ontario, and blooms of potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria prompted a formal response protocol to be followed.