Export of nutrients from golf courses on the Precambrian Shield

Annual export rates, or fluxes, of total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, total phosphorus (TP) and potassium from four streams on two golf courses on the Precambrian Shield were compared with those from forested reference locations. Overall, the mean annual fluxes of K, TN, NO3 and TP from golf courses were greater than from forested areas by 10, 2, 6 and 2 times, respectively. The overall mean export coefficients (kg/ha/yr) were 16 for K, 5.2 for TN, 2.1 for NO3 and 0.14 for TP. For TN and TP, these are similar to those reported from cropland in Canada by Chambers and Dale (1997. Contribution of industrial, municipal, agricultural and groundwater sources to nutrient export, Athabasca, Wapiti and Smoky Rivers, 1980 to 1993. Northern River Basins Study Project Report No. 110. Northern River Basins Study, Edmonton, Alberta).Golf courses increase nutrient loads in receiving streams.